AACC International claims that the second edition of Bubbles in Food aims to inform processors of the latest technological developments for interpreting aerated food properties and behaviour.
Products such as bread, beer, champagne, ice-cream and whipped cream owe their novelty and distinctiveness to bubbles, says the publication.
The new volume covers the most recent experimental techniques for measuring and quantifying the aerated structure of foods including ultrasonics, MRI imaging, X-ray tomography, rheology and image analysis, according to the publisher:
“These techniques and approaches provide the stimulus for new product development or for enhancing the understanding of the manufacturing of existing products, leading to enhanced quality and greater product differentiation.”
The guide, said AACC International, also provides novel processing ideas and mathematical modelling of bubble behaviour.
Researchers from Nestlé noted that bubbles formed by gas in foods impart unique textures, chew, and mouth-feel to products.
However, little is known about the relationship between structure of such products and consumer response in terms of mouth-feel and eating experience, the scientists stated.
Their findings, documented in the Journal of Food Science, showed that chocolate produced using carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide had a distinctly better gas retention and contained larger bubbles, than the chocolates made with nitrogen or argon.
The sensory tests showed that the chocolates made with the argon and nitrogen were perceived as harder, less aerated, slower to melt in the mouth but with a higher overall cocoa flavour intensity.
The ones produced with argon and nitrogen were also judged to be creamier than the chocolates made with carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, the scientists say
The report was produced by two researchers from Nestlé and a scientist with the School of Food Biosciences at the University of Reading in the UK.
And, according to a recent study published in Science, microscale bubbles could whip up a range of long-lived, stable foam products whilst giving formulations interesting sensory properties.
A collaboration between Harvard University and Unilever researchers found a way to create gas-liquid systems with tiny bubbles that remain stable for up to a year. This may help to significantly extend the life of foam-based food products, such as whipped cream, ice cream, sorbets, and mousses, according to Howard Stone from the School of Engineering and Applied Science at Harvard.