Published in LWT Food Science and Technology, researchers investigated the cause of “weak aroma” in gluten-free breads and how this could be improved.
Analysis showed gluten-free breads lacked certain flavor compounds that were key to the aroma of regular wheat bread, specifically pyrazines and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2ACP).
Wheat bread contained 41 volatile compounds; wheat rye contained 54 and gluten-free only 33.
“Differences were mainly related to the volatile compounds contained in the crust of the bread,” the researchers wrote.
“…So far, gluten-free bread has not been analyzed in terms of the volatile compounds it contains, but this feature is a vital factor for the quality of the product from the consumer’s point of view.”
They said unpleasant sensory notes in gluten-free bread might also be associated with high levels of methional that tends to have a potato-like odor.
Amino acids and sugar
However, the researchers said these compound deficiencies in gluten-free bread could be resolved with the addition of amino acids and sugars to the bread mix.
After testing five amino acid/sugar pairings, the researchers found proline combined with glucose to be most efficient.
These precursors, they explained, combined to create the aromatic compound 2ACP – normally not present in gluten-free bread.
“The addition of aroma precursors of Maillard reaction in the dough prior to baking, as a pair of proline and glucose, filled this shortcoming and allowed bread with a much improved and acceptable aroma to be produced,” they wrote.
In consumer testing with celiacs, 80% preferred the gluten-free breads made with these aroma precursors.
“This confirmed the effectiveness of aromatizing gluten-free bread using proline/glucose as flavor precursors,” the researchers wrote.
Source: LWT Food Science and Technology
Published online ahead of print, doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2015.03.032
“Improving the aroma of gluten-free bread”
Authors: M. Pacynski, RZ. Wojtasiak and S. Mildner-Szkudlarz