Wheat chips can be fortified with flaxseed but frying temperatures must be high to counteract textural and taste impacts, research shows.
The study published in the Journal of Food Chemistry investigated fortifying wheat chips at a formulation stage with flaxseed flour which is high in dietary fiber and omega-3s. It then looked at how this impacted the chemical and physical properties of the chips as well as texture, taste and color.
The researchers from Erciyes University in Turkey successfully fortified the wheat chips but acknowledged that inclusion of flaxseed does impact the physiochemical, textural, fatty acid composition and sensorial propertuies. They said it is therefore important for manufacturers to work on optimal formulation and processing parameters, particularly the frying temperature.
High frying temperatures for acceptability
“Overall acceptability scores of samples significantly increased with the increasing of frying temperature,” the researchers wrote.
Taste scores were higher when the chips were fried in hotter oil and crispiness improved. The increase in frying temperatures also counteracted the hardness given by the flaxseed flour in the chips, the researchers found.
Wheat chips could be fortified using levels of flaxseed flour as high as 20%, they said, but the optimal amount was 10%. Ideal processing for a formulation containing 10% flaxseed flour involves a frying temperature of 180°C cooked for 52 seconds, the researchers said.
Flaxseed omega-3 benefits
The researchers said that findings proved particularly interesting for the Turkish market, given how much wheat the population consumes as it would enable manufacturers to bring an appealing functional snack to the market.
Flaxseed is high in omega-3s, containing about 40-45% of fatty acid oils, and also a good source of fiber, vitamins and minerals, they said.
“Because of the high unsaturated fatty acid content of flaxseed, fortification of foods with flaxseed can be a good way to increase the omega type fatty acid content of the processed foods,” the researchers added.
Source: Journal of Food Chemistry
Published: February 2014, Volume 145, Pages 910-917
“Enrichment of wheat chips with omega-3 fatty acid by flaxseed addition: Textural and some physicochemical properties”
Authors: F. Yuksel, S. Karaman and A. Kayacier