Milling & Grains bite-size science
Phytic acid in Indian sorghum, Australian crop sensitivity to climate change, durum wheat dry mass, water and protein composition
Phytic acid concentration in Indian sorghum
Malkhed-1 landrace and Phule Maulee sorghum variety have the lowest phytic acid concentration, according to an Indian study.
The study analysed phytic acid, inorganic phosphorus content, seed weight and grain yield in 98 sorghum landraces and varieties grown in two environments.
A Malkhed-1 landrace, had the lowest phytic acid (0.015 mg g–1) concentration. Similarly, among the varieties, Phule Maulee showed the lowest phytic acid (0.07 mg g–1). Phytic acid was the major storage form of phosphorus in cereals.
The researchers concluded that genotypes with the lowest low phytic acid and high yield would be helpful for increasing the bioavailability of mineral nutrients.
“The relative performances of cultivars for quantitative traits such as seed weight, grain yield, and seed phosphorus vary from one environment to another. To develop a variety with high yielding ability and consistency, focus should be placed on the multi-environment testing of genotypes and precise estimation of their interactions,” they added.
Source: The Crop Journal
Published online ahead of print: doi:10.1016/j.cj.2014.09.003
Genetic variation for seed phosphorus and yield traits in Indian sorghum landraces and varieties
Authors: A. Badigannavar, G.Girish, T.R Ganapathi
Field pea sensitivities
Field pea is more sensitive to climate change than other Australian broadacre crops, researchers find.
The researchers analysed five broadacre crops (wheat, barley, lupin, canola and field pea) at four locations in Australia. They used bias corrected statistically down-scaled climate data in their study.
The shift in rainfall and rising temperatures were believed to pose a challenge to the sustainability of broadacre crop yields in Western and South-Eastern Australia.
The results showed that field pea was the most sensitive from all of the analysed crops.
“The ensemble median changes in field pea yield range from a decrease of 12% to a decrease of 45%, depending on location. These results highlight the importance of research and policy to support strategies for adapting to climate change, such as advances in agronomy, soil moisture conservation, seasonal climate forecasting and breeding new crop varieties,” said the researchers.
The negative impact of climate change was mainly due to advances in crop phenology.
Source: Agricultural Systems
Vol.132, January 2015 pp. 133-144
Climate change impacts on phenology and yields of five broadacre crops at four climatologically distinct locations in Australia
Authors: M. Rajin Anwar, R. Ferguharson et al.
Durum wheat dry mass, water and protein composition
The water concentration and protein quantity in durum wheat impacts the dry mass, find researchers.
The researchers set up a field experiment in a Mediterranean environment and analyzed the effect of sowing date and nitrogen fertilization on grain dry mass, water, protein composition for durum wheat.
They concluded that grain dry mass accumulation was related to water concentration in grain and the quantity of protein fractions scaled with the quantity of nitrogen per grain.
They have also found that SDS-extractable gluten polymers were produced until the end of grain filling and that polymer insolubization was related to the dehydration of the grain.
“The end-use value of durum wheat is mainly governed by its grain protein concentration and composition. Adjustment of variables to compensate for inter-annual and location variations in semolina quality leads to high cost for processors in the wheat industry. A better understanding of the mechanisms governing environmental variations of grain protein composition is thus required,” said the researchers.
Source: Field Crops Research
Vol. 171, 1 February 2015, pp. 23-31 doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2014.10.016
Grain filling duration and glutenin polymerization under variable nitrogen supply and environmental conditions for durum wheat
Authors: R. Ferrise, M. Bindi, P. Martre