Published in Food Chemistry, researchers from Argentina incorporated plasma bovine proteins into gluten-free bread formulations. The proteins were concentrated by ultrafiltration and freeze-dried with saccharides (inulin and sucrose).
While bovine proteins had not commonly been used in bread because of “poor sensory qualities”, the researchers said there was “an urgent need to investigate potential bread-making ingredients, additives and technological aids to develop high-quality gluten-free products at a reasonable price”.
Findings showed that such proteins freeze-dried with inulin improved a number of characteristics in the gluten-free breads without negatively impacting the sensory profile.
The researchers recommended fortification levels of 2.5% w/w (2.5 g per 100 g of product).
Better network, structure
Findings showed a bread texture close to similar gluten-free breads could be created.
“The textural studies revealed that with the addition of proteins and inulin, homogeneous and smaller air cells were achieved improving the textural properties while the bread hardness was comparable with breads with gluten,” the researchers said.
In addition, volumes increased in line with increases in protein and inulin concentration and moisture retention improved, reducing staling.
Upping nutrition for celiacs
In addition to textural improvements, the researchers said the nutritional profile of the gluten-free bread was highly advantageous due to the protein and prebiotic content.
Oligosaccharide inulin, they said, was considered a dietary fiber that acted as a prebiotic in the formulation.
“Enrichment of gluten-free bread with dietary fibers has also proved to be necessary since it has been reported that celiac patients have, generally, a low intake of fibers attributed to their gluten-free diet,” they wrote.
Fibers could increase calcium absorption, they said, as well as promote growth of intestinal bacteria.
Source: Food Chemistry
Published online ahead of print, doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.033
“Improvement of gluten-free bread properties by the incorporation of bovine plasma proteins and different saccharides into the matrix”
Authors: LT. Rodriguez Furlán, A. Pérez Padilla and ME. Camderrós