The rationale for using enzymes as processing aids is to enhance dough processing and improve the final quality of the product. However, enzymes can have an indirect impact on cost as Gary Tucker, head of baking and cereal processing at Campden BRI explained.
“There may be an ingredient substitution effect. For example, lipase enzymes have the potential to cut costs by replacing emulsifiers.”
DSM for instance has claimed its dough strengthening lipase enzyme Panamore Golden reduces costs by up to 70%.
Tucker said that Panamore acted on the lipids in flour to generate an emulsifying effect, thus allowing manufacturers to reduce or entirely remove emulsifiers.
“There’s every chance it would have a cost saving, but it depends on the cost a manufacturer pays for an emulsifier compared to Panamore, and the relative dose levels,” he said.
Other lipase enzyme suppliers include Novozymes with its Lipopan brand and Danisco through Gryndamyl Exel-16.
“Lipases are one of the most recent additions to the enzyme toolbox,” said Tucker. Lipase enzymes have been around for several years, but interest from the industry has increased in recent years as more functional sources have been developed.
“One of the biggest advantages is that they give you a clean label product,” said Tucker.
In the EU, there is currently no requirement to label a processing aid that is not active in the final product – therefore a lipase enzyme could allow a manufacturer to have an emulsifier-free label.
Amylase enzymes are another type of processing aid that may help to cut costs. “Cost can be incurred through waste and certainly the amalyses will reduce waste,” continued Tucker.
There are two main categories of amylase enzymes: fungal amylase and maltogenic amylase.
Fungal amylase has been used by industry for many years to control the amount of sugar generated in the dough. This is used by yeast to generate carbon dioxide at controlled rates thereby ensuring the bubble structures are not damaged. The enzyme therefore has an indirect impact on cost as it limits the chance of producing products with an undesirable structure.
The other type, maltogenic amylase, delays bread staling by changing the amylopectin molecule of starch making it harder to crystalize, which means bread stays softer for longer and the shelf life is increased.
Xylanases are another category of enzymes with a potential to reduce costs. These enzymes are used to breakdown fiber and are also commonly used.
“From a dietary perspective fiber is a good thing, but it presents difficulties for processing,” said Tucker.
Multigrain breads that use wheat bran for example absorb water within the dough. Reduced water in the dough can cause it to tighten when it is resting, leading to later problems with molding and proofing.
By adding a xylanase enzyme, fiber molecules are broken down and more water is released to soften the dough.
Natural quality and dosage
“Enzymes are generated in nature and it is possible to get a natural source of most enzymes. However, these are not pure sources of the enzyme and so manufactured ingredients will have a more consistent quality,” said Tucker.
He added that if manufacturers wanted to reduce costs through enzymes, it was important to stick to doses recommended by the given ingredient supplier.
For more on this special edition: