Published in Food Science and Technology, researchers fortified wheat durum breads with yellow pepper flour.
Both hydrated and non-hydrated flours were used at varying concentration levels, but findings showed hydrated yellow pepper flour at a concentration of 25% was optimal as it could effectively boost nutrition without impacting physical and sensorial properties of the bread.
“The incorporation of yellow pepper flour markedly increased the carotenoids content and therefore the antioxidant activity of the bread. Additionally, the lowest values of glucose release were observed in all bread samples added with yellow pepper four, with or without hydration, compared to the control sample,” the researchers wrote.
Doubled antioxidant content and lower GI
The improved antioxidant value could play an essential role in the prevention of non-communicable diseases like cardiovascular diseases, cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, they said, while also lowering the typically high glycemic index (GI) associated with durum wheat bread.
“Because of the high levels of carbohydrates in bread, the determination of glycemic index (GI) of yellow pepper flour enriched bread seemed to be an important criterion to take into account when evaluating the so-called nutritional and physiological advantages of this product,” they wrote.
Compared to the control bread, antioxidant content was doubled with the inclusion of yellow pepper flour, the researchers found.
Importantly, the carotenoid content remained pretty much intact during baking - “there were no significant losses of antioxidant activity”, they said.
Sensory, textural impact
Findings showed incorporation of a mid-hydrated yellow pepper flour ensured the best sensory and textural properties, as there was just the right amount of water in the formulation to promote good texture and dough forming.
While incorporation of the flour did impact the color and appearance of the bread, other attributes were scored similarly to the control bread. “The taste of roasted pepper made the bread pleasant,” findings showed.
Source: Food Science and Technology
Published online ahead of print, doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2014.06.001
“Processing and characterization of durum wheat bread enriched with antioxidant from yellow pepper flour”
Authors: A. Danza, M. Mastromatteao, F. Cozzolino, L. Lecce, V. Lampignano, J. Laverse and MA. Del Nobile