Few topics can spark a more spirited debate these days than gluten, and yet, as the Whole Grains Council/Oldways points out, misconceptions abound when it comes to gluten—especially within the larger scope of whole grains.
Speaking to FoodNavigator-USA as part of our special edition on the gluten-free market, Cynthia Harriman, WGC’s director of food and nutrition strategies, outlined four primary consumer misconceptions about gluten and grains and how the industry is working to debunk them through science.
Myth 1: Gluten-free equals grain-free
One of the most common myths is that a gluten-free diet also has to be grain-free, Harriman said. “People think if you’re eating gluten-free you need to avoid all grains, and that’s just not true. Of the 14 grains likely to be found in US food supply, 10 are considered to be gluten-free.”
The only gluten-containing grains are wheat, barley, rye and triticale. The 10 gluten-free whole grains are amaranth, buckwheat, corn, millet, quinoa, rice, sorghum, teff, oats and wild rice.
Oats, though inherently gluten-free, have drummed up some controversy, as they’re easily contaminated by wheat during production and processing. “Oats are grown in fields near wheat, carried in same rail cars and processed in same facility. If you have a real need for gluten-free, you should look for oats that have been tested. But there are a number of people who supply gluten-free oats," she noted.
Myth 2: Modern wheat is higher in gluten (and GMO)
Fueled by claims made in high-profile diet books like Wheat Belly and Grain Brain, many consumers believe modern wheat is higher in gluten. In reality, USDA research shows gluten levels in wheat have not increased—but that levels of vital gluten in processed foods have increased threefold just since 1997 and are still rising.
“Quantitatively gluten has not increased in wheat. However, we are eating more gluten overall because it is added as an isolated product to so many foods,” she said, adding, “but don’t blame wheat itself.” Indeed, 20% of the world’s calories come from wheat, according to the United Nations—a larger share than any other single food.
In line with this is the misconception that all wheat is genetically modified by default. “Almost all corn and soy crops are GMO so people figure wheat is too. It’s not a big stretch to believe it. But ironically wheat farmers themselves have been the loudest voices against GMO in wheat because they export half of their wheat overseas.”
Myth 3: You can self-prescribe a gluten-free diet
Paraphrasing a portion of Alessio Fasano’s recent presentation at the International Celiac Symposium, Harriman said, “People don’t decide on their own that they have diabetes and start giving themselves insulin shots; why do they diagnose themselves when it comes to gluten? That concept really put into focus for me this idea of self-diagnosing without medical advice.”
Myth 4: Gluten-free eating is as simple as having a burger with no bun
One of the most worrying misconceptions when it comes to the gluten-free diet is what it really is and what that means, Harriman said.
“A lot of people say, ‘Miley Cyrus is gluten-free, so I will do it, too, meaning I won’t have a bun with my burger today. They don’t understand how different this is for celiacs—that trace amounts can cause problems, that gluten is in so many foods, the importance of totally separate equipment and using a dedicated production facility, etc.
“Celiacs often say that they like that the diet is getting more attention and that there are more GF specials on the menu, but it makes you wonder if that means some operators say they’ll make a dish with rice instead and put ‘GF’ next to it without going through vetted organizations to see if they are really making it safe. The fad and fantasy side trivializes and endangers the medically necessary side,” she added.
Still, the truth eventually reasserts itself, Harriman said, noting that—like other fads before it—the gluten-free trend can have some lasting positive effects as well, such as fostering a better awareness of the different grains and their benefits.
“I always like to hope that we don’t throw baby out with bath water; that instead we drain the water and keep the baby,” she said. “One reason whole grains became so popular is actually because of the low-carb phase of the early 2000s. After manufacturers worked so hard to make baked goods and grain foods with no carbs, they found that making them with whole grains was not that difficult. So we did keep baby and threw out the water that time. I’d like to see it this time, too.”
Don't miss the THE FOODNAVIGATOR-USA FORUM: GLUTEN-FREE IN PERSPECTIVE
11.30am EST, April 30, 2014.
Find out more about gluten-free market trends and growth opportunities; the science behind celiac disease, gluten intolerance and wheat allergy; the technical challenges of formulating great-tasting gluten-free products; and the latest consumer research.
This LIVE online panel debate moderated by FoodNavigator-USDA editor Elaine Watson brings together world-renowned celiac disease researcher Dr Alessio Fasano; TJ Mcintyre from leading gluten-free manufacturer Boulder Brands (Udis, Glutino);DrDavid Sheluga, director of commercial insights at food and ingredients giant ConAgra Foods; and Tom Vierhile, innovation insights director at Datamonitor.